The false debate between “orthodox” and “heterodox” economics is a political weapon, but one that is usually aimed against those of us who preach for a critical economic science. Certainly, to achieve a critical economic thinking, it is necessary to encourage a plurality that is at the same time ideological (knowing the different schools of economic thought), indisciplinary (using the diversity of approaches that sociology, political science, economics use to study the same object), methodological and pedagogical. The aim can never be to generate a new orthodoxy, but to give the economists the tools that they require to understand (and transform) reality.
The history of the struggle for critical thinking in economics in Argentina might be useful as a learning experience. The contemporary stage of that history begins in 1997 with the foundation of the first “Escuelas de Economía Política” (Schools of Political Economy) as extracurricular (and also critical of the Universities in which they developed their activities) places to learn and discuss; but it is reinforced with the creation of the “Jornadas de Economía Crítica” (Critical Economy Conferences) in 2007 and in 2014 with the launch of the Sociedad de Economía Crítica (Critical Economy Society).